6. ANGLES -- the proper angle assures accuracy, body alignment and
economy of motion. The following can be said of angles: it aids one in
taking the proper path; both the arms and legs can utilize the vast
number or angles; and the angle of a defensive position can cancel the
angle of an offensive strike (a vertical angle can cancel a horizontal
angle or visa versa).

7. BODY ALIGNMENT -- places angles into perspective. It compels body
parts to coordinate to move in one direction (or opposite directions).
It is no more than angles in harmony traveling to the same target (or
directly opposite targets) in the hope of maximizing your blocks or
strikes (or combinations of both). Body alignment: compels natural
weapons to be supported properly; follows the principle of back-upmass;
and insures proper angle of incident -- your natural weapon gets
full benefit upon target contact.

8. BACK-UP MASS -- is a result of proper body alignment. When this
occurs, the weight of your body positions itself in line with, and
behind of, the action rendered. Back-up mass allows you to take full
advantage of your body weight, when your body parts are in proper
alignment; it centralizes your body weight so that it adds to the
force of your action; it reinforces the delivery of your natural
weapon, especially when the principles of directional harmony and
point of origin are in perfect synchronization with each other.

9. ECONOMY OF MOTION -- entails avoiding wasteful angles, and the
management of strength (power) in obtaining the most for your efforts
in the shortest possible time. Economy of motion: makes one aware that
time is crucial; unquestionably enhances speed; uses movements that
follow direct angles and paths; eliminates telegraphing while
following direct angles; teaches continuity, flow, and motion rhythm;
forces one to think logically; conditions one to employ sophisticated
moves -- block with a strike, not block and strike; and teaches you to
react with your natural weapons from where they are at the time of a
surprise attack.

10. TIMING -- is a concept that incorporates the principle of economy
of motion. In essence it is the regulation of speed and coordinated
effort in synchronization with an opponent's movements. Perfecting
this rhythmatic marriage makes victory more of a certainty. Timing:
comes with practice and experience; is important during combat; aids
in the development of economy of motion; helps to nullify your
opponent's efforts; allows you to take advantage of your opponent's
openings; increases your ability to become illusive; requires the
perfection of defensive and offensive synchronization; and can
incorporate various rhythmatic patterns as a means of baffling your

Ed Parker Sr. Memories
Archived with the permission of Ed Parker Jr.
Ed Parker Sr. was the founder of the art known today as American Kenpo.
In these files, Ed Parker Jr. shares his fathers unpublished notes and other memories with us.